According to American Bone Health Organization, adults need between 1,000 and 1,200 mg of calcium a day. If you don't get enough calcium from your diet, your body will leech what it needs from bone, which ultimately leads to thinning. Milk is rich in calcium, so many people choose it as Calcium supplements. In Ismail’s research , in half of the samples,the level of Pb and Cd was found to exceed the permissible limit (0.02 µg/g and 0.0026 µg/g) set by International Dairy Federation. The toxic impacts of heavy metals on human health include skeletal damages, renal failure, cell damages, osteoporosis, cancer of lungs and blood, hormonal disturbances, gastrointestinal problems and anemia. Milk is chemically very complex, with many different ingredients. So detectiong the level of heavy metal in milk is turned into an important task. Up to now many achievements in electrochemisty field have been reported an used for actual test,which is easy to use and cheaply.


1.Simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in honey and milk samples using a single-walled carbon nanohorns modified screen-printed electrochemical sensor
2.Sonochemical synthesis of gum guar biopolymer stabilized copper oxide on exfoliated graphite: Application for enhanced electrochemical detection of H2O2 in milk and pharmaceutical samples